Inequality in exposure to air pollution may reinforce preexisting health and income inequality, and is therefore a growing concern for French policy-makers and the general public. This project aims to analyse the mechanisms underlying this form of inequality, paying special attention to their links with urban dynamics. It thus lays at a crossroads between Urban Economics and Environmental Economics. First, it seeks to provide a finer and more precise measure of inequality in exposure to air pollution in France, and to evaluate the impact of specific environmental policies on these inequalities. It also aims at a better understanding of the potential vectors (commuting, housing insulation…) and the mechanisms at the root of these inequalities (e.g., sorting à la Tiebout, 1956).