The need to guarantee the volume and quality of agricultural products, in face of the challenges raised by climate change, seems to increase the use of pesticides (Delcour et al., 2015). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO), the quantities of pesticides applied on French agricultural soils have increased from 3.21kg/ha in 2010, to 3.44kg/ha in 2020. At the same time, a vast epidemiological literature recognizes the potential harm of these products on health and human development. Using the French ELFE Cohort and data on cultural practices in field crop and viticulture, this study seeks to determine the relationship, if any, between pesticide exposure and child health and cognitive damages. Our findings may clarify the link between pesticide exposure and environmental inequalities at birth.